Volunteering for Peace: Interstate Peacebuilding through International Volunteering

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日本平和学会2017年度秋季研究大会

 

 

Volunteering for Peace:

Interstate Peacebuilding through International Volunteering

 

Joshua Michael Campbell

International Christian University

 

Keywords: International Volunteering, Intergroup Contact Theory, Interstate Peacebuilding, Peace Corps, Perceptions

 

I. Introduction ・ はじめに

 

International Volunteering Cooperation Organizations (IVCOs), such as the Peace Corps and the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers, have been promoted and praised as alternatives to military intervention and traditional for promoting peace between nations (Kennedy, 1964; Rieffel & Zalud, 2006). These organizations also emphasize their role as interstate peacebuilders by incorporating into their missions the goal of fostering peace through the promotion of international understanding (Peace Corps, 2014; Government of Japan Public Relations Office, 2015). That said, to date, there have been few (Nisley, 2013), if any, studies establishing the efficacy or exploring the process of promoting peace through international volunteering. In order to address this need, the following study will examine how peace can be promoted through a transformation in relations between nations enabled by the intergroup contact that occurs between international volunteers and host-country counterparts.

 

平和部隊や日本青年海外協力隊のような国際ボランティア協力機構は軍隊と伝統的な外交に変わり、平和構築のための支援を行ってきた [Kennedy, 1964; Rieffel Zalud, 2006]。これらの機構も国際理解のための平和構築をその目的のひとつとしている [Peace Corps, 2014] [Government of Japan Public Relations Office, 2015]。しかし、これまで、国際ボランティア活動における平和構築の効果性や方法を調べる調査はまだあまりない [Nisley, 2013]。そのため、この調査は国際ボランティア活動における国際ボランティアとホスト国の相手との集団間接触で国際関係の変換の平和構築方法を調べる。

 

II. The Study・調査

 

This paper will report the findings of an ethnographic field study of the intergroup contact experiences of American Peace Corps Volunteers, Japanese JICA Volunteers, and Moroccan Counterparts in the context of community development projects conducted in Morocco during the fall of 2016. The premise upon which the peacebuilding potential of IVCOs is predicated is the “Contact Hypothesis”: contact between members of two different groups can reduce tension and prejudice between them, while fostering favorable relations (Hewstone & Brown, 1986; Hogg, 2003). Using the more robust incarnation of this hypothesis, Intergroup Contact Theory, as a framework, data collected through in-depth interviews and participant observation was analyzed to determine how intergroup contact in the context of international volunteering operates and influences intergroup relations.

 

この論文では2016年の秋にモロッコにおけるアメリカ人の平和部隊ボランティアと日本人のJICAボランティアとモロッコ人の相手との集団間接触の民族誌的な現地調査の結果を発表する。この論文は、「接触仮説」を用いて国際ボランティア協力機構の平和構築の可能性を検証する。接触仮説は異なるグループの個人が接触したら、集団間の差別とテンションを減らして、仲がいい関係を支援するという考えである[Hewstone Brown, 1986]。仮説から作った集団間接触理論を使い、国際ボランティア活動における集団間接触を理解するために、面接等で集めたデータを分析した。

 

III. Transforming Perceptions・認知の変換

 

Intergroup contact between international volunteers and host-country counterparts was found to result in a transformation of perceptions for both parties along several dimensions. Foremost among these was a shift from low-information, impoverished images of the out-group nation to high-information, enriched images of the out-group. This begins before contact through a movement from passive-received images of the out-group determined by environmental influences to active-priming images that are developed through independent research, education, and training that frames the intergroup encounter. Following contact, these images become enriched with information from personal encounters and immersive experiences. These largely result in an increase of favorable images, recognition of diversity within the out-group, and improved intergroup perceptions. Importantly, through interpersonal communications and digital media, these transformed perceptions are communicated to the wider in-group, facilitating a potential shift in overall intergroup relations.

 

国際ボランティアとホスト国の相手の間の集団間接触は両側のお互いの認知の変換が起こった結果を見つけた。一番重要な結果は、情報が少ないと他者のイメージが良くないが、情報が増えるにつれて他者のイメージが改善し、変換していくことである。接触の前からすでに変換は始まっている:環境から影響を受けた他者グループのイメージや、個人研究や教育やトレーニングから影響を受けた他者グループのイメージによって。接触の後で、このイメージは自分の経験から影響を受けて、情報で改善をする。そして、良いイメージが増えて、他者グループの内における多様性を認めて、集団間認知が良くなる。大事に、人間間のコミュニケーションとディジタル・メディアで変換した認知を**グループとコミュニケーションして、集団間系の変化の可能性を支援する。

 

IV. Bibliography

 

 Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., John, M.-S., Halabi, S., Saguy, T., Pearson, A. R., & Riek, B. M. (2008). Majority and Minority Perspectives in Intergroup Relations: The Role of Contact, Group Representations, Threat, and Trust in Intergroup Conflict and Reconciliation. In A. Nadler, T. E. Malloy, & J. D. Fisher (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Reconciliation (pp. 227-254). New York: Oxford University Press.

 Government of Japan Public Relations Office. (2015, August 1). Volunteer Programs that Energize both the World and Japan: Interview with JICA President Akihiko Tanaka. Retrieved April 24, 2017, from Highlighting Japan: http://www.gov-online.go.jp/eng/publicity/book/hlj/html/201508/201508_01_en.html

 Hewstone, M., & Brown, R. (1986). Contact is not Enough: An Intergroup Perspective on the 'Contact Hypothesis'. In M. Hewstone, & R. Brown (Eds.), Contact and Conflict in Intergroup Encounters (pp. 1-44). Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

 Hogg, M. A. (2003). Intergroup Relations. In J. Delamater (Ed.), Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 479-501). New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.

 Japan International Cooperation Agency. (2015, November 17). JICAボランティアの歩み. Retrieved April 24, 2017, from JICA: https://www.jica.go.jp/volunteer/outline/history/

 Kennedy, J. F. (1964). An Alternative to Military Service. In P. Madow (Ed.), The Reference Shelf: The Peace Corps (Vol. 36, pp. 17-20). New York: The H.W. WIlson Company.

 Lough, B. J. (2011). International Volunteers' Perceptions of Intercultural Competence. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 452-464.

 Nisley, T. (2013). Send in the Corps! The Peace Corps and the Popular Perception of the United States in Latin America. Politics and Policy, 41(4), 536-562.

 Peace Corps. (2014). Peace Corps Performance and Accountability Report: Fiscal Year 2014. Washington, DC: Paul D. Coverdell Peace Corps Headquarters.

 Pettigrew, T. F., & Tropp, L. R. (2006). A Meta-Analytic Test of Intergroup Contact Theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(5), 751-783.

 Rieffel, L., & Zalud, S. (2006). International Volunteering: Smart Power. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.

 Sherraden, M. S., Lough, B., & McBride, A. M. (2008, November 7). Effects of International Volunteering and Service: Individual and Institutional Predictors. Voluntas, 19, 395-421. doi:10.1007/s11266-008-9072-x

 Sherraden, M. S., Stringham, J., Sow, S. C., & McBride, A. M. (2006, June). The Forms and Structure of International Voluntary Service. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 17(2), 156-173.